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  1. JDK
  2. JDK-8046151

JEP 161: Compact Profiles



    • JEP
    • Status: Closed
    • P4
    • Resolution: Delivered
    • 8
    • None
    • None
    • Bob Vandette, Mark Reinhold
    • Feature
    • Open
    • SE
    • 3 MR, 160 MR, 337
    • jdk8 dash dev at openjdk dot java dot net
    • M
    • M
    • 161



      Define a few subset Profiles of the Java SE Platform Specification so that applications that do not require the entire Platform can be deployed and run on small devices.


      1. Define the Profiles themselves.

      2. Define some means to identify the current Profile at runtime.

      3. Ensure that the result is testable, so that appropriate conformance and quality tests can be run against implementations of each Profile.

      4. Enhance existing JDK tools to support the creation of applications that can run on specific Profiles.

      5. Take into account, to the extent possible, a future transition to a more flexible approach based upon a module system.


      It is not a goal of this proposal to define a module system.


      The primary motivation for this feature is to allow applications that do not require the entire Java SE Platform to run on resource-constrained devices. An application that does not use the Swing/AWT/2D graphics stack, e.g., or which uses Java FX instead, can achieve considerable space savings by running on top of a Profile that does not include those APIs.

      More broadly, this feature is intended to enable the migration of applications currently built on top of the Java ME Connected Device Configuration (CDC) to appropriate Profiles of the Java SE Platform, part of the long-term effort to converge CDC with Java SE.

      As a secondary benefit, this feature is likely to enable faster download times for applications that bundle their own Java Runtime Environment (JRE).


      We currently envision defining three Profiles, arranged in additive layers so that each Profile contains all of the APIs in Profiles smaller than itself. Each Profile will specify a specific set of Java API packages; the corresponding JRE will include, to the extent feasible, only the classes, native code, and other resources required to support those APIs.

      Here is an initial draft of the sets of API packages in each Profile. For the moment we name the Profiles compact1, compact2, and compact3.

      compact1                     compact2                    compact3
      --------------------------   -----------------------     --------------------------
      java.io                      java.rmi                    java.lang.instrument
      java.lang.annotation         java.rmi.activation         java.lang.management
      java.lang.invoke             java.rmi.dgc                java.security.acl
      java.lang.ref                java.rmi.registry           java.util.prefs
      java.lang.reflect            java.rmi.server             javax.annotation.processing
      java.math                    java.sql                    javax.lang.model
      java.net                     javax.rmi.ssl               javax.lang.model.element
      java.nio                     javax.sql                   javax.lang.model.type
      java.nio.channels            javax.transaction           javax.lang.model.util
      java.nio.channels.spi        javax.transaction.xa        javax.management
      java.nio.charset             javax.xml                   javax.management.loading
      java.nio.charset.spi         javax.xml.datatype          javax.management.modelmbean
      java.nio.file                javax.xml.namespace         javax.management.monitor
      java.nio.file.attribute      javax.xml.parsers           javax.management.openmbean
      java.nio.file.spi            javax.xml.stream            javax.management.relation
      java.security                javax.xml.stream.events     javax.management.remote
      java.security.cert           javax.xml.stream.util       javax.management.remote.rmi
      java.security.interfaces     javax.xml.transform         javax.management.timer
      java.security.spec           javax.xml.transform.dom     javax.naming
      java.text                    javax.xml.transform.sax     javax.naming.directory
      java.text.spi                javax.xml.transform.stax    javax.naming.event
      java.time                    javax.xml.transform.stream  javax.naming.ldap
      java.time.chrono             javax.xml.validation        javax.naming.spi
      java.time.format             javax.xml.xpath             javax.security.auth.kerberos
      java.time.temporal           org.w3c.dom                 javax.security.sasl
      java.time.zone               org.w3c.dom.bootstrap       javax.sql.rowset
      java.util                    org.w3c.dom.events          javax.sql.rowset.serial
      java.util.concurrent         org.w3c.dom.ls              javax.sql.rowset.spi
      java.util.concurrent.atomic  org.xml.sax                 javax.tools
      java.util.concurrent.locks   org.xml.sax.ext             javax.xml.crypto
      java.util.function           org.xml.sax.helpers         javax.xml.crypto.dom
      java.util.jar                                            javax.xml.crypto.dsig
      java.util.logging                                        javax.xml.crypto.dsig.dom
      java.util.regex                                          javax.xml.crypto.dsig.keyinfo
      java.util.spi                                            javax.xml.crypto.dsig.spec
      java.util.stream                                         org.ieft.jgss

      In a few rare cases it may be necessary to subset classes by removing methods, e.g., the addPropertyChangeListener and removePropertyChangeListener methods defined by java.util.logging.LogManager, to avoid spliting packages or referencing types that do not exist.

      JMX and the JMX Remote API are proposed for compact3. It may be necessary to update the JMX API to avoid referencing types in java.beans that do not exist. In the case of the JMX Remote API then it may be necessary to downgrade support for the RMI-IIOP protocol to avoiding needing to include CORBA.

      Any existing package not contained in one of these Profiles will be available only in the full JRE.

      Optional components

      In order to keep the size of the Profiles to a minimum, some non-API functionality will be defined as optional. This includes, but is not limited to:

      • Security Providers --- The compact1 Profile will contain a minimal set of security providers. The minimal set of providers will be selected based on the most popular and frequently-used algorithms. All providers not included in compact1 will be defined as optional and will not be required to be included in any distribution.

      • Country-specific localization resources --- All non-US localization resources will be defined as optional. All optional localization resources will be packaged and grouped in such a form as to be easily added to any JRE by a developer.

      Identifying the Profile implemented by a running JRE

      The java -version option will be enhanced to report the Profile implemented by the JRE in question.

      The release file, located in the top-level directory of the image, will also be updated to include a property to indicate the implemented Profile.

      At this time we do not envision the need to add an API or Java Property for running code to indicate the implemented Profile.

      Enhancements to tools and commands

      • javac --- A new command-line option will be defined to specify the intended target Profile. It will be a compile-time error for source code being compiled to reference APIs outside of that Profile.

      • javadoc --- The Platform API Specification will need to identify which API classes are in which Profiles. The javadoc tool will be enhanced to display this information.

      • jdeps --- This tool will be updated with a command-line option to show the minimum profile that a package or class is contained in.

      Build-system modifications

      The JDK build system can currently produce a full Java Runtime Environment (JRE) or a complete Java Development Kit (JDK), which is the full JRE plus a set of development tools. We plan to enhance the new build system described in JEP 138 to optionally produce the three additional Compact target JRE images.


      Tools which statically analyze class files and remove unused elements have long been used to reduce the size of Java applications. Applying such tools to classes in the Platform itself, however, is problematic because any significant reduction in size requires specific knowledge of the applications to be run.


      The Java SE TCK must be modified so that it can test implementations of any specified Profile. The TCK's test agent must not require the use of any APIs outside of the compact1 Profile.

      All regression and functional tests must be examined to determine the impact that the introduction of Profiles will have upon them.

      Risks and Assumptions

      The definition of Profiles in Java SE 8 may complicate the migration of applications to the fully-modular Java SE Platform expected in a future release. The Profiles defined by this effort should, to the extent possible, be aligned with the ongoing work in Project Jigsaw.

      There will likely be some minor impact upon existing APIs, to address situations in which existing API packages do not cleanly fall into one Profile or another.


      • Other JDK components: javac, javadoc, as described above
      • Compatibility: Limited: Minor spec changes required for some APIs
      • User experience: Limited: Tool enhancements
      • TCK: Significant: TCK must be split up to support Profiles


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