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  1. JDK
  2. JDK-8181287

JEP 305: Pattern Matching for instanceof (Preview)



    • Brian Goetz
    • Feature
    • Open
    • SE
    • amber dash dev at openjdk dot java dot net
    • 305



      Enhance the Java programming language with pattern matching for the instanceof operator. Pattern matching allows common logic in a program, namely the conditional extraction of components from objects, to be expressed more concisely and safely. This is a preview language feature in JDK 14.


      Nearly every program includes some sort of logic that combines testing if an expression has a certain type or structure, and then conditionally extracting components of its state for further processing. For example, all Java programmers are familiar with the instanceof-and-cast idiom:

      if (obj instanceof String) {
          String s = (String) obj;
          // use s

      There are three things going on here: a test (is obj a String?), a conversion (casting obj to String), and the declaration of a new local variable (s) so we can use the string value. This pattern is straightforward and understood by all Java programmers, but is suboptimal for several reasons. It is tedious; doing both the type test and cast should be unnecessary (what else would you do after an instanceof test?). This boilerplate -- in particular, the three occurrences of the type String --- obfuscates the more significant logic that follows. But most importantly, the repetition provides opportunities for errors to creep unnoticed into programs.

      Rather than reach for ad-hoc solutions, we believe it is time for Java to embrace pattern matching. Pattern matching allows the desired 'shape' of an object to be expressed concisely (the pattern), and for various statements and expressions to test that 'shape' against their input (the matching). Many languages, from Haskell to C#, have embraced pattern matching for its brevity and safety.


      A pattern is a combination of (1) a predicate that can be applied to a target, and (2) a set of binding variables that are extracted from the target only if the predicate successfully applies to it.

      A type test pattern consists of a predicate that specifies a type, along with a single binding variable.

      The instanceof operator (JLS 15.20.2) is extended to take a type test pattern instead of just a type. In the code below, the phrase String s is the type test pattern:

      if (obj instanceof String s) {
          // can use s here
      } else {
          // can't use s here

      The instanceof operator "matches" the target obj to the type test pattern as follows: if obj is an instance of String, then it is cast to String and assigned to the binding variable s. The binding variable is in scope in the true block of the if statement, and not in the false block of the if statement.

      The scope of a binding variable, unlike the scope of a local variable, is determined by the semantics of the containing expressions and statements. For example, in this code:

      if (!(obj instanceof String s)) {
          .. s.contains(..) ..
      } else {
          .. s.contains(..) ..

      the s in the true block refers to a field in the enclosing class, and the s in the false block refers to the binding variable introduced by the instanceof operator.

      When the conditional of the if statement grows more complicated than a single instanceof, the scope of the binding variable grows accordingly. For example, in this code:

      if (obj instanceof String s && s.length() > 5) {.. s.contains(..) ..}

      the binding variable s is in scope on the right hand side of the && operator, as well as in the true block. (The right hand side is only evaluated if instanceof succeeded and assigned to s.) On the other hand, in this code:

      if (obj instanceof String s || s.length() > 5) {.. s.contains(..) ..}

      the binding variable s is not in scope on the right hand side of the || operator, nor is it in scope in the true block. (s at these points refers to a field in the enclosing class.)

      There are no changes to how instanceof works when the target is null. That is, the pattern will only match, and s will only be assigned, if obj is not null.

      The use of pattern matching in instanceof should dramatically reduce the overall number of explicit casts in Java programs. Moreover, type test patterns are particularly useful when writing equality methods. Consider the following equality method taken from Item 10 of the Effective Java book:

      @Override public boolean equals(Object o) { 
          return (o instanceof CaseInsensitiveString) && 
              ((CaseInsensitiveString) o).s.equalsIgnoreCase(s); 

      Using a type test pattern means it can be rewritten to the clearer:

      @Override public boolean equals(Object o) { 
          return (o instanceof CaseInsensitiveString cis) && 

      The instanceof grammar is extended accordingly:

           RelationalExpression instanceof ReferenceType
           RelationalExpression instanceof Pattern

           ReferenceType Identifier

      Future Work

      Future JEPs will enhance the Java programming language with pattern matching for other language constructs, such as switch expressions and statements.


      The benefits of type-test patterns could be obtained by flow typing in if statements, or by a type switch construct. Pattern matching generalizes both of these constructs.


      The implementation may make use of JEP 309 (Dynamic Class-File Constants).


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              jlahoda Jan Lahoda
              briangoetz Brian Goetz
              Gavin Bierman Gavin Bierman
              Mark Reinhold
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