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  1. JDK
  2. JDK-8303167

JEP 449: Deprecate the Windows 32-bit x86 Port for Removal



    • George Adams & Bruno Borges
    • Feature
    • Open
    • Implementation
    • jdk dash dev at openjdk dot org
    • S
    • S
    • 449



      Deprecate the Windows 32-bit x86 port, with the intent to remove it in a future release.


      • Update the build system to issue an error message when an attempt is made to configure a build for Windows 32-bit x86 (x86-32). The error message will be suppressible via a new configuration option.

      • Mark the port, and related port-specific features, as deprecated for removal in the relevant documentation.


      • It is not a goal to change the status of the affected port in any prior release. The earliest release to which this JEP could be targeted is JDK 21.

      • It is not a goal to deprecate any other 32-bit port.


      • Allow contributors in the OpenJDK Community to accelerate the development of new features and enhancements that will move the platform forward.

      • The implementation of JEP 436 (Virtual Threads) for Windows x86-32 falls back to the use of kernel threads and therefore does not bring the expected benefits of Project Loom.

      • Windows 10, the last Windows operating system to support 32-bit operation, will reach End of Life in October 2025.


      An attempt to configure a Windows x86-32 build will produce the following output:

      $ bash ./configure
      checking compilation type... native
      configure: error: The Windows 32-bit x86 port is deprecated and may be removed in a future release. \
      Use --enable-deprecated-ports=yes to suppress this error.
      configure exiting with result code 1

      The new build configuration option --enable-deprecated-ports=yes will suppress the error and continue:

      $ bash ./configure --enable-deprecated-ports=yes
      checking compilation type... native
      configure: WARNING: The Windows 32-bit x86 port is deprecated and may be removed in a future release.
      Build performance summary:
      * Cores to use:   32
      * Memory limit:   96601 MB
      The following warnings were produced. Repeated here for convenience:
      WARNING: The Windows 32-bit x86 port is deprecated and may be removed in a future release.


      The alternative would be to continue to support Windows x86-32. This would require active maintainers who can provide a sustainable and performant implementation of Virtual Threads, as well as future JEPs, to ensure that the JDK on Windows x86-32 continues to meet the expectations of Java developers.

      Risks and Assumptions

      32-bit JVMs are still used on Windows due to integration with 32-bit native libraries (DLLs). Their users cannot migrate directly to 64-bit JVMs because a 64-bit process on Windows cannot load 32-bit DLLs. While Windows x64 is capable of running 32-bit applications by emulating an 32-bit environment through WOW64, applications will suffer dramatic performance degradation despite the assumed memory footprint benefits.

      We therefore assume that

      • Users can continue to run existing builds of the Windows 32-bit JVM to integrate with native 32-bit libraries and, if necessary, expose 32-bit functionality via remote APIs to be consumed by applications running on a 64-bit JVM within the same environment; and

      • Legacy systems are unlikely to migrate to versions of the JDK following the release of Java 21.


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              gdams George Adams
              gdams George Adams
              George Adams George Adams
              Jesper Wilhelmsson
              Dalibor Topic, Vladimir Kozlov
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